(1909-2003) a US director of films and plays, born in Turkey of Greek parents. He also wrote and produced films. He helped to start the Actors' Studio in New York and directed plays there, including A Streetcar Named Desire (1947) and Death of a Salesman (1949). He won Oscars for Gentleman's Agreement (1947) and On the Waterfront (1954) and received a special Oscar in 1999. His other films include A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) and East of Eden (1955).