(1820-1910) an English nurse who became famous for her work during the Crimean War. In spite of a lot of opposition from army officials, she greatly improved the conditions of military hospitals and reduced the numbers of soldiers dying of disease. She used to walk round the hospital beds at night with her lamp, comforting the patients, and so became known as the 'Lady of the Lamp'. Later she ran a campaign to change the British hospital system and improve the training of nurses. In 1907, she became the first woman to receive the Order of Merit.