Definition of of preposition from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Oxford3000

of

preposition
əv
 
; əv
 
ɒv
 
; strong form ʌv
 
 
1 belonging to somebody; relating to somebodya friend of minethe love of a mother for her childthe role of the teacherCan't you throw out that old bike of Tommy's?the paintings of Monet
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When you are talking about everything someone has painted, written, etc, use of. When you are referring to one or more examples of somebody's work, use by: a painting by Monet
2 belonging to something; being part of something; relating to somethingthe lid of the boxthe director of the companya member of the teamthe result of the debate3 coming from a particular background or living in a placea woman of Italian descentthe people of Wales4 concerning or showing somebody/somethinga story of passiona photo of my doga map of India5 used to say what somebody/something is, consists of, or containsthe city of Dublinthe issue of housinga crowd of peoplea glass of milk6 used with measurements and expressions of time, age, etc.2 kilos of potatoesan increase of 2%a girl of 12the fourth of Julythe year of his birth (old-fashioned) We would often have a walk of an evening.7 used to show somebody/something belongs to a group, often after some, a few, etc.some of his friendsa few of the problemsthe most famous of all the stars8 used to show the position of something/somebody in space or timejust north of Detroitat the time of the revolution (North American English) at a quarter of eleven tonight (= 10.45 p.m.)9 used after nouns formed from verbs. The noun after ‘of’ can be either the object or the subject of the action.the arrival of the police (= they arrive)criticism of the police (= they are criticized)fear of the darkthe howling of the wind10 used after some verbs before mentioning somebody/something involved in the actionto deprive somebody of somethingHe was cleared of all blame.Think of a number, any number.11 used after some adjectives before mentioning somebody/something that a feeling relates toto be proud of something12 used to give your opinion of somebody's behaviourIt was kind of you to offer.13 used when one noun describes a second oneWhere's that idiot of a boy (= the boy that you think is stupid)?
Idioms

of all

used before a noun to say that something is very surprising
I'm surprised that you of all people should say that.

of all the…

used to express anger
Of all the nerve!