(1157-99) the king of England from 1189 to 1199, following his father King Henry II. He is often called Richard the Lionheart or Richard, Coeur de Lion, because of his courage in battle. He spent the first part of his rule abroad fighting in the Third Crusade, at the end of which he reached a peace agreement with Saladin in 1191. On his journey home he was captured and held as a prisoner by the Austrian emperor (= ruler) Henry VI, until a large amount of money was paid for releasing him. He spent his later years fighting against the French, and after his death in battle in 1199 he was replaced as king by his brother John.