(1865-1936) an English writer. He was born in India, where many of his books are set (e.g. The Jungle Book and Kim), and worked there as a journalist in the 1880s. He wrote in a wide range of forms, including novels, short stories and poems for adults and children. Many of his poems are still very popular, including If, Gunga Din and Mandalay (1892). The characters in his work are often soldiers in parts of the British Empire, and he has been accused of taking too much pride in the British Empire and its use of military force. In 1907 Kipling became the first English writer to receive the Nobel Prize for literature.