John Henry Newman (1801-90) an English priest and poet. When he was the vicar (= priest) of the Anglican University Church in Oxford he shocked many people because his opinions seemed closer to those of the Roman Catholic Church than the Church of England. He became a Roman Catholic in 1845, and a Catholic priest the next year. In 1879 he was made a cardinal (= a senior Roman Catholic priest). His writing had a wide influence on religious thought, and some of his poems are still sung as hymns (= religious songs).