(1882-1975) an Irish political leader, born in the US. He was put in prison by the British on various occasions and took part in the Easter Rising against the British in 1916. He was leader of the Sinn Fein party from 1917 until 1926 when he formed the Fianna Fáil party. He directed the talks with Britain which led to southern Ireland's independence from Britain in 1921. He was Taoiseach (Prime Minister of the Irish republic) three times and its President from 1959 to 1973.