the capital city of England and the UK CultureLondonThe capital city of England and the United Kingdom lies on the River Thames, which winds through the city. Its many bridges, including London Bridge, are a famous sight. The most distinctive is Tower Bridge, which was designed to blend in with the nearby Tower of London.The Tower was built in the 11th century. In the medieval period London grew rapidly in size and importance. Westminster Abbey and the Guildhall date from this time, and the Palace of Westminster became the meeting place of Parliament. In 1666 many buildings were destroyed in the Fire of London. This provided an opportunity for architects like Christopher Wren to redesign much of the city. As London's population increased, new streets, squares and parks were added, and many public buildings. London was heavily bombed in World War II, after which a new cycle of rebuilding began.London is a busy commercial and cultural centre. Many important financial organizations, including the Bank of England and the London Stock Exchange, are located in the area called the City. Part of the old port in east London has been redeveloped as a business centre, called Docklands. In the West End there are theatres, cinemas, museums and shops. Many people who work in London commute by train or bus from the suburbs because buying a house or flat near the centre is very expensive. Different parts of the city are linked by the famous red London buses, black taxi cabs and the London Underground, often called ‘the Tube ’.People from all over the world have been attracted to London and it is now a cosmopolitan, multicultural city. People from other parts of Britain sometimes think that it is very noisy and dirty. Many go there only for the ‘bright lights’ — the theatres round Shaftesbury Avenue or the shops of Oxford Street and Regent's Street. Others take their children to see the sights, such as Buckingham Palace, where the Queen lives, and the clock tower from which Big Ben chimes the hours. Young people are attracted to the bars and comedy clubs of Covent Garden, to live music concerts, and the stalls of Camden market and the cafes and pubs of Notting Hill and similar areas.