Thomas Edward Lawrence (1888-1935) an English soldier and writer. He began his career as an archaeologist (= a person who studies ancient history by examining objects found under the ground), but in 1916 went to Saudi Arabia to plan and lead a successful military campaign against Turkish rule in the Middle East, as a result of which he became known as Lawrence of Arabia. He described the campaign in his book Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1926). This brought him fame and a romantic reputation, but he disliked publicity and tried to escape it by twice changing his name. He died in a motorcycle accident in Dorset, England. A film, Lawrence of Arabia, about his life appeared in 1962.